> When to get tested: After 40
There are several types of glaucoma, a condition that affects the nerve connecting the eye to the brain. The most common type of glaucoma is an open-angle glaucoma, which often has no symptoms other than gradual vision loss. Glaucoma, which has no cure, is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the U.S.
More than 3 million Americans are living with glaucoma, but half of them don’t even know it, according to the Glaucoma Research Foundation. Some research has shown that older women are at a higher risk of glaucoma and glaucoma blindness than men.
The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends an eye disease screening for everyone over the age of 40. People at higher risk — such as diabetics, those with high blood pressure, and people with family history of glaucoma — should start testing earlier.
22. Hepatitis B
> When to get tested: During each pregnancy
There is a hepatitis B vaccine, but for those who are not vaccinated, the CDC recommends regular screening for certain groups of people, including those who inject drugs and who have HIV.
In addition to testing based on risky behaviors, hepatitis B screening is recommended for all pregnant women because babies born to women with hepatitis B who are not treated at birth are at significant risk of developing chronic hepatitis B, which is an illness that occurs when the virus remains in a person’s body.
About 1.2 million people in the country have hepatitis B and most are unaware that they have the infection. Every year, about 3,000 people in the U.S. die from hepatitis B-related liver disease.